The court of heaven is the supreme court of the universe of which God is the sovereign Judge and to Whom all other courts, authorities, powers, dominions, nations, and all intelligent beings of angels, demons, and men must give account at their appointed times.


      The throne of God is the center of all activity in heaven and earth. The Scriptures reveal that the earth is filled with angelic creatures, both of the righteous angels and of fallen angels with demon spirits, Gen 28:12-15; 32:1-2, 24-32;


      The officials and attendants of the court of heaven (Rev 4 & 5; Dan 7:9-10, 13, 22, 26; Isa 6:1-6; Ezek 1; 10; Ex 25:18-22) are seen chiefly in Rev 4 and 5 and are discussed briefly below. Each one has a specific function which in some cases is defined clearly but in other cases it is not.


       "The books" (Dan 7:10; Rev 20:12; Ex 32:32; Ps 56:8; 69:28; 139:16; Eccl 12:14; Dan 12:1,9; Mal 3:16; Lk 22:28-30; Rev 3:5; 5 & 6; 10:8-11; 13:8; 17:8; 20:11-15) evidently contain at least the following:
  1. Predetermined laws, spiritual and physical as well as moral, which govern the functions of the universe into the ages of the ages.

  2. Records of all the works of God from the beginning, and which are evidently constantly being recorded.

  3. Records of all the thoughts, words, and deeds of the righteousness angels.

  4. Records of all the thoughts, words, and deeds of Satan and wicked spirits.

  5. The covenant between the Father and the Son, much of which is evidently still not revealed, Eph 2:7; Heb 1:2.

  6. The covenants between God and men which are a part of and progressively reveal the covenant between the Father and the Son.

  7. Various records of every thought, word, and deed of every human being who has ever lived.
      All creation, the heavens, the earth, and the fullness of them to the most minute detail, is being governed by God. However, God is not ruling His creation, all of it or any part of it, by arbitrary actions; conversely, it is obvious from the Bible that "the books" which will be opened at the judgments (Dan 7:10; Rev 20:11-15) contain, in part, the predetermined laws, statutes, commandments, judgments, precepts, principles, etc., by which God is constantly ruling and directing all things.

      And since the Bible, which is a Book of books, is also a Book entirely of covenants between God and His covenant people -- specifically, between the Father and the Son and the covenant people whom the Father has predestined to share the firstborn sonship together with the Son -- it therefore becomes the more obvious that "the books" which will be opened at the judgments will concern those same covenant matters contained in the Bible.


      The expression "the seven Spirits of God" (Rev 4:5) evidently refers to the completeness and fullness of the Holy Spirit, since the seven Spirits are placed within the Trinity in Rev 1:4. See also Rev 3:1; and 5:6. The Holy Spirit is the constant presence of God in all His attributes throughout all the universe. The Holy Spirit performs all the works of God which are evidently recorded by the court staff and witnessed by the court staff as being according to the predetermined laws recorded in "the books."


      The cherubim are evidently among the wisest, and most powerful of the angels. They are of the immediate court staff and are constantly in the immediate presence of God and Christ on their thrones (Rev 3 7 4; Ezek 1 & 10), except as seen guarding the tree of life, Gen 3:24. Of all the angelic creatures the cherubim are the nearest to the throne of God and are the chief guardians of it.


  1. It appears there are at least four orders of cherubim: some have one face and six wings (Rev 4:7-8), some have four faces and four wings (Ezek 1:7), some have one face and two wings, (Ex 25:20; 37:8-9), and some appear to have two faces, Ezek 41:18.

  2. Among other things, they have many eyes indicating they were very intelligent and full of constant awareness, Rev 4:6, 8; Ezek 1.

  3. They are very powerful, fast, and perfect in all they do, Ezek 1; 10.

  4. Certain cherubim appear to be two-fold beings in that each cherub has a wheel (a wheel within a wheel) beside them. Each wheel is alive, has a rim full of eyes indicating intelligence, and is fully synchronized in every respect with the cherub to which it belongs, Ezek 1.


  1. They served as guardians of the throne of God, Rev 4 & 5.

  2. They transported a portable throne of Christ in Ezekiel, Ezek 1 & 10. This is probably what is meant by the Lord flying on the wings of the cherubim, Ps 18:10; II Sam 22:11.

  3. They constantly proclaim God's holiness, Rev 4:8. In this capacity they serve as witnesses of the truth and the righteousness of God's judgments, Rev 18:1-4;

  4. They worship God with praise, thanks, harps, songs, and incense, Rev 5:8-14; 7:11; 19:4.

  5. They bear witness of the worthiness of Christ to redeem the saints so that they are worthy to reign and minister as kings and priests, Rev 5:8-12.

  6. They beckoned John to "Come and see" each time one of the seven seals in the Book of Revelation was opened, Rev 6.

  7. They give instruments of judgment to the executioners of God's wrath, Rev 15:7; Ezek 10:7.


      The twenty-four elders are angelic beings of great authority who sit on twenty-four thrones (thronous) round about the throne of God and the four cherubim. They are special court officials within the immediate court staff as indicated below.


  1. They worship God with praise, thanks, harps, songs, and incense, Rev 5:5, 8-14; 11:16-18; 19:4.

  2. They bear WITNESS of the worthiness of God because He created all things and by His will they were created and have their existence.

  3. They bear WITNESS of the worthiness of Christ to redeem the saints so that they are worthy to reign as kings and minister as priests, Rev 5:8-12

  4. They bear WITNESS together WITH the four cherubim that Christ is worthy to take the little book out of the Father's hand, open the seals, and read the book, because He has redeemed the saints, not the cherubim and twenty-four elders, Rev 5:1-10. The cherubim are righteous angels who need no redemption and therefore would not be singing "redeemed US" (Rev 5:9). "Redeem US" should be translated "redeem THEM." This song is sung by both the cherubim and the twenty-four elders. Therefore since the cherubim are angels, the twenty-four elders are also angels. The cherubim will not be singing "THEM" while the twenty-four elders are singing "US."

    Furthermore, God has not appointed the world to come to be under the rule of angels, Heb 2:5. The cherubim are angels. Therefore since God has not appointed angels as kings and priests to reign on the earth, they will not sing "made US to our God kings and priests and WE shall reign on the earth," (Rev 5:10). Only the faithful saved of mankind can sing these words. The translation should read, "make THEM to our God kings and priests and THEY shall reign on the earth." Therefore, since both the twenty-four elders and the our cherubim sing this song, it is clear that the twenty-four elders are also angels.

  5. They bear WITNESS under the seventh trumpet that God properly takes the kingdoms of this world from the Antichrist, that the time has come to reward the saints and "destroy those who destroy the earth," i.e., the Antichrist and his forces.

  6. They bear WITNESS that the saints have washed their robes in the blood of the Lamb, have gotten the victory, and have been conformed to the image, fullness, and oneness of the divine Trinity, Rev 7:13-17; 11:16-19; 14:3. See also Eph 1:22-23; 3:19; Col 1:19; 2:9-10; John 10:30-36; 14:8-11; 17:21-23.

  7. They bear WITNESS that God's judgments upon the great religious whore are true and righteousness, Rev 19:1-4

  8. From the above, it is clear that the chief function of the twenty-four elders, other than worshipping God, is the function of being official court WITNESSES in at least three very important ways:

    1. To insure that "the books" are properly documented with the prescribed information. See 9b and 9c below.

    2. To insure the proper maintenance of those records. Again, see 9b and 9c below.

    3. To verify or bear witness that God is righteous in His judgments according to "the books." For instance, the thoughts, words, and deeds both of the righteous and the wicked are recorded in the appropriate books, and those thoughts, words, and deeds are judged according to the laws in the covenant books which state what is right and what is wrong, Rev 20:11-15; Dan 7:9-10; Mal 3:16; Ps 56:8; Eccl 12:14.
  1. Furthermore, it is evident the twenty-four elders have been performing their function as court WITNESSES from near the beginning of their creation. This conclusion is based, in part, on the following evidence:

    1. The twenty-four elders are seen EXCLUSIVELY as court officials constantly performing official court functions together with the four cherubim and are addressed separately from the saints throughout the book of Revelation. See also Dan 7.

    2. Again, the twenty-four elders are not human but angels because they sing together with the four cherubim that Christ has redeemed the saints and made them to be kings and priests to reign on the earth. The cherubim are righteous angels who need no redemption and are not appointed to be kings and priests to reign with Christ on the earth (Heb 2:5), so the word "us" in Rev 5:9-10 must be "them" as most Bible versions have it.

    3. "The books" (record books among them) have evidently been kept from the beginning of creation -- a book of remembrance was written BEFORE (in the presence of) God concerning those who fear the Lord and meditate on His name, Rev 20:11-15; Dan 7:9-10; Eph 1:4, 11; Rev 13:8; Ps 56:8; 139:16; Eccl 12:13-14; Mal 3:16; II Cor 5:10, Rev 11:18. Records of ALL thoughts, words, and deeds have been kept from the beginning, according to these and similar passages.

    4. The court of heaven has evidently been in existence since the creation of the heavens and the earth according to God's purpose, certainly since the fall of Satan with a great host of angels, and then the fall of Man. Record books evidently have been kept and are being kept of all the creative and redemptive works of God, Same scriptures as in "c" above, plus Acts 2:23; I Pet 1:20; Rev 13:8; et al.

    5. The little book which Christ alone was worthy to take from the hand of the Father, open its seals, and reveal and execute its content is clearly a book of redemption (Rev 5 & 6), which according to the Scriptures requires the presence of witnesses to all the official redemptive transactions of the Father, Son, and the Holy Spirit as seen in the following.


      The Bible itself is a Book of redemption, the covenants are covenants of redemption, and the little book (scroll) of Rev 5 & 6 is a book of redemption. The Law Covenant provides the following information (given only generally here) of the redemption transactions, John 17:24; Acts 2:23; Eph 1:4, 11; 3:9; II Tim 1:9; Titus 1:2; Heb 1:2, 10; 4:3; I Pet 1:18-20; Rev 5 & 6; 13:8; Lev 25; 27; Ruth 4; Jer 32:6-44.
  1. The redemption transaction became functional when a person, his name, and his property needed to be redeemed.

    The Law Covenant provided that when a person became poor he could sell his property and/or sell himself into servitude until the year of jubilee; or if a man died without an heir his nearest kinsman who was able and willing should redeem his property, marry his widow, and by her have a son who would bear the name and be the heir of the deceased person, Lev 25; 27; Ruth 4.

  2. The redemption transaction required the nearest kinsman to redeem, but gave him the option to decline.

    The right of redemption belonged to the nearest kinsman. However, in case of a deceased man, the kinsman must also marry the widow of the deceased and have a son by her who would bear the name and be the heir of the deceased person. The nearest kinsman could refuse to perform the right and responsibility incumbent upon the nearest kinsman, in which case the right of redemption would pass to the next nearest kinsman, Let 25; 27; Ruth 4.

  3. The redemption transaction had to have proper witnesses.

    There had to be witnesses of the redemption process. All official matters were, if possible, to be established by at least two or three witnesses, Deut 17:6; 19:15. Boaz took ten men of the elders of the city to be witnesses of his redemptive transaction, Ruth 4. Observe the requirement and emphasis placed upon witnesses in Jer 32:6-44.

  4. Redemption transactions were sometimes written, and safely kept with open and sealed documents for a future time.

    In the case of Jeremiah there were to be two identical documents: one was to remain unsealed, but the other was to be sealed. The open document was evidently for review, while the other document was to be officially sealed and kept in a safe place in order that it should be officially opened before proper witnesses at a designated time so that the person or persons designated in the document should be redeemed and receive the redeemed possessions which are also officially described in the document, Jer 32:6-44.

  5. The redemption documents were to be safely maintained in an official manner.
      "And I gave the purchase deed to Baruch the son of Neriah, son of Mahseiah, in the presence of Hanameel my uncle's son, and in the presence of the witnesses who signed the purchase deed, before all the Jews who sat in the court of the prison. Then I charged Baruch before them, saying, Thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: 'Take these deeds, both this purchase deed which is sealed and this deed which is open, and put them in an earthen vessel, that they may last many days.' For thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: 'Houses and fields and vineyards shall be possessed again in this land,"' Jer 32:12-15.
  1. The sealed document was to be opened by a qualified person at an appointed time.

    Jeremiah was careful throughout this entire transaction about proper and official procedures, written documents, an open and a sealed document, and official witnesses. He then charged Baruch, a qualified person, to take the documents and place them in a secure place "that they may continue many days." It is unquestionable that the same official formality will be followed when the sealed document is opened at the prescribed time.

  2. The Scriptures require that the opening of sealed documents must also be witnessed by proper witnesses.

    A major part of the official formality which must be followed when the sealed document is opened is that there be qualified witnesses who will, in the Spirit of Christ, scrupulously observe and verify that every minute requirement is accurate and righteous according to the Scriptures pertaining to redemption transactions.


      The scriptures establishing and governing the redemption transaction had their first but much lesser application to the nation of Israel as God's covenant people. These scriptures provided for a just and continuing inheritance or possession for them. This provision was made within the framework of the failures and inequities of a social structure permeated and distorted by the sinful human nature.

      The major application of the scriptures establishing and governing the redemption process concerns the redemption of a special and obedient covenant people who within themselves are dead in sins. They are helpless and hopeless without Christ as the one and only qualified Redeemer. The redemption transactions of the Law Covenant, therefore, were designed to serve as types, shadows, or symbols of the true, spiritual, and eternal redemption of the covenant people. The redemption process provides for the redemption of the covenant people, their name, and their promised covenant inheritance from the sinful environment of this world and its effects as mankind has known it for these thousands of years.
  1. The covenant people, their covenant name, and their promised covenant inheritance must be redeemed.

    Christ was foreordained as a slain lamb without spot or blemish before the foundation of the world, Isa 46:8-11; John 17:24; Acts 2:23; 4:28; Rom 8:28-30; 11:2; I Cor 2:7; Eph 1:4, 11; 2:10; 3:9; II Tim 1:9; Titus 1:2; Heb 1:2; I Pet 1:2,18-20.

    This was done in the counsel between the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit before the creation of the world, before the creation of man, and, of course, before man sinned against God and fell into his current sinful state.

    However, the court of heaven, as seen in Dan 7; Rev 4 & 5; and through the book of Revelation, had to be established AFTER the creation of the cherubim, the twenty-four elders, and the angels because they are a part of the court.

    As stated above, the laws of the Law Covenant which established and governed the function of the kinsman redeemer are types (shadows, symbols) of Christ as the true and only kinsman Redeemer of the covenant people, their name, and their promised covenant inheritance.

    It appears unequivocal from the scriptures cited in "B" above, that the witnessing of the writing, signing, sealing, preserving, opening of the seals, and execution of the redemption documents as are to serve as types and instructions of God's redemptive plan for mankind. It appears necessary, therefore, that the court of heaven, as seen in Dan 7 and in the book of Revelation, was established BEFORE the sin of man and before the sin of Satan and other angels. This conclusion is further based upon the following indicators:

    1. "The books" appear to include records of all of God's covenants and works as well as all the thoughts, words, and deeds of all of His creatures, Dan 7:10; Rev 20:12; Ex 32:32; Ps 56:8; 69:28; 139:16; Eccl 12:14; Dan 12:1, 9; Mal 3:16; Lk 22:28-30; Rev 3:5; 5 & 6; 10:8-11; 13:8; 17:8; 20:11-15.

    2. The record books appear to be written not by God but before (in the presence of) God, no doubt by the twenty-four elders or by Gabriel's angels under the watchful eyes of the twenty-four elders.

      See IV. A. above.

    3. It is further evident that the thoughts, words, and deeds of God's creatures have been and are being recorded as they happen, Ex 32:31-33; Mal 3:16; Rev 3:5.

  2. Christ is the only qualified kinsman Redeemer.

    Christ qualified as our Kinsman by His virgin birth, by which He became our Kinsman and also, of necessity, a Kinsman without the sinful nature as we have. Christ further qualified as our Redeemer by His perfect life, His personal ministry on earth, His death, burial, and resurrection, and by His current mediatorial ministry. The redemption documents required all of this.

  3. The redemption was witnessed, and is being witnessed, by proper witnesses.

    The cherubim, the twenty-four elders, and the angels were evidently there when the sealed document (Rev 5 & 6) was written, witnessed to, and sealed in the beginning. They have, as witnesses, witnessed all the qualifying features as Christ qualified step by step. They are further witnessing our qualifying as the covenant people, and will bear witness to the righteous execution of God's wrath upon the enemies as part of the redemptive process, Rev 16.

  4. (the rest of this chapter and the following two chapters are unfinished)

  5. The redemption documents were written, both open and sealed, for a future time.

  6. The redemption documents have been properly maintained.

  7. The sealed document has been opened by the qualified person.

  8. The opening of the sealed document was witnessed by the proper witnesses.


      The foregoing evidence establishes that the two chief functions of the twenty-four elders is that of worshipping God and bearing witnessing of His righteous judgments.